Conflicts between humans and wild animals
In Burma the conflict between the wild animals and the poor peasants is evident today. The elephants eat the crop and at the same time destroy the rice fields by their big feet. The government does not allow the use of weapons, so the peasants use noise by shouting and by gunpowder.
The elephants are used as tractive force by forest work. Occasionally wild elephants are captured to keep up the working capacity. In preparation for total subjection they are immediately subjected to methodical torture. According to the forest workers the only future of the elephants consists in being used as tractive force.
In former times ... humans gradually conquered nature from their actual geographical position, by burning woods in preparation for agriculture, and by capturing wild animals to use them for different purposes ... Because of the scattered habitation the adverse effect was limited...
Icelandís colonization as an example of sharing sparse resources and
living together at farms as the pivotal point of society
When Norwegians and British colonized Iceland, they
settled in a suitable distance of one another. Vegetation was sparse, and what
really mattered was cultivating the earth and taking care of the domestic
animals. The farms were the stamping grounds of the activity taking place on the
island. At the individual farm the family and the servants were collected in
very few rooms. The family played a very important roll, and the government of
the island was a collection of the heads of the families, who occasionally
gathered to agree about conflicts between the islanders and in order to lay down
guidelines for the utilization of sparse vegetation.
Daily life, regarded as work and as spare time, took place within and around the farms. The farms were self-sufficient. There were no towns with exchange of merchandise. There was no infrastructure and therefore no state. It was not yet necessary...